After the fatal Second world war, it was considered the need of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear weapons and the nuclear technology can be used only for peaceful purposes like for energy generation. Hence, Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968 by Nuclear and Non-Nuclear nations including Iran, North Korea, and Pakistan. Consequently, IAEA ( International Atomic Energy Agency) will work as a watchdog for ensuring peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Background of Iranian Nuclear Issue:
After a part of NPT-1968, Iran faced an Islamic Revolution in 1979 which changed the politic environment of Iran. It strained the relations of Iran and US. Following the revolution, the US became opposed to Iran’s nuclear programme as Iran is defiant to adhere to International NPT-1968 and not extending full cooperation to IAEA for the inspection of its nuclear site.
The situation got worsen, when it was discovered by intelligence sources in 2002 that Iran was developing a uranium enrichment plant at Natanz and a heavy water production plant at Arak. This disclosure led to standoff between Iran and other western countries. Although, Iran tried to claim that its nuclear programme is for peaceful purposes, the claim was not admitted by US and other western countries.
Iran started Negotiation with European countries in 2003 and assured to find a political solution to Iran’s nuclear impasse. But, the situation escalated in 2005 when Ahmadinejad became President of Iran. After which, Iran removed the seals of Isfahan Uranium enrichment plant. It viewed as the violation of Paris Agreement between Iran and European Nations. IAEA took it as a serious offense and decided to refer Iran’s violation of safeguard agreement to UN security council. In 2006, UN security council restricted Iran from financial trade and military sanctions till it dismantle her nuclear weapons programme. In the addition, US put the Iran in its “Evil State” list with other nations- North Korea, Libya, Cuba, Iraq.
All these sanctions hit the Iran economy as its oil export came down drastically and payments were held up due to refusal of western financial institutions to provide insurance and financial transaction services to the countries importing oil from Iran.
Israel was keen to military operations in Iran, but these actions were not supported by China and Russia and also India suggested the political solutions to Iran problems. Hence, 16th summit of Non-Alignment was held in Tehran in August, 2012.
In 2013, the politics of Iran again turned with the new president, Hassan Rouhini came to power who acted swiftly to establish communications with western nations and US. Barack Obama in its second term were not keen to military operations and thus, negotiations were started in 2013 in Switzerland between Iranian delegations and the representatives of P5 (US, China, Russia, France, Britain) + 1 nations (Germany), in spite of the disapproval of Israel and Jews lobbyist in USA.
Iran Nuclear Deal 2015:
The Iranian Nuclear deal was signed on 14, July, 2015 between Iran and P5+1 nations after long run of negotiations since November, 2013. The deal is known as ‘Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action’. It is going to bring the halcyon days of Iranian economy as it will unfrozen the freezed assets around the world and removed the austerity sanctions imposed on the Iran.
The framework agreement was signed on April, 2015 at Lausanne in Switzerland. This interim deal provided for halting production of 20% enriched uranium by Iran and elimination of Iran’s stockpile of the enriched Uranium. And, in return, Iran was given access to $700 million a month of its assets around the world. This framework agreement is known as Geneva Agreement. But, the Final Agreement is signed in Vienna on 14, July, 2015.
The main points of the Agreement:
1. According to Vienna Agreement, Iran can keep 300kg of its entire stockpile of 8 tonnes of low-enriched Uranium and rest will have to export.
2. Iran is allowed to function 6000 centrifuges for enriched uranium out of 19500 for 15 years. And, the remaining will placed under the monitoring of IAEA, and Iran will reduce its ability to enrich uranium by 2/3rd of its capacity. (Centrifuges are required to Enrich Uranium and Enrich Uranium is used for Nuclear weapons.)
3. The Fordow enrichment plant which was secretly built in a hollow-mountain, will converted into research center. And, almost 2/3rd centrifuges will be removed.
4. Iran will allowed to enrich uranium upto 3.67 percent so that it can only be used for peaceful purposes only.
5. Iran’s heavy water plant at Arak will be redesigned so that it can not be capable of producing nuclear weapons and also agreed not build any other plant in next fifteen years.
6. Iran will implement the ‘Additional Protocol’ safeguards agreement signed with IAEA that will inspect and monitor the Iran’s nuclear programme and regulary check that all programs are compliance with the agreement.
7. US and other alliance will recognize that Iran’s use nuclear technology within the ambit of the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty.
8. This agreement will impose some restrictions on Iran’s Ballistic missile program over the next 8 years.
9. This will unfreexe the frozen assets of Iran over the world, of almost $100 billion since 2006.
10. This agreement will restrict the Iran from developing the nuclear weapon, even if it violates the agreement. This will take almost 1 year to develop nuclear weapon when Iran breaks the agreement which will provide the P5 nations to impose restriction on it.