Crucial facts of Nepal constitution and how it formulated

Nepal ‘The Himalayan Kingdom’ has finally promulgated its new formed constitution on 20th, September, 2015 under the violence in Southern region of Nepal by ethic communities.
This formulation of new constitution has gone through many movements in Nepal. The new constitution is the struggle of peoples of Nepal to achieve a new Democratic and Secular country ending the Monarchy rule in the Himalayas.

History of Nepal’s struggle:

  1. Jan Andholan (People’s Movement) was first started in February, 1990 which led to the end of absolute monarchy and the beginning of constitution democracy. And, also eliminated the Panchayat system.
  2. The first PM of Nepal was Bishweshar Prasad Koirala in 1959. But, the real power remained in the hands of King. This led to struggle for the democracy of Nepal among Communist parties and Nepali Congress party.
  3. As a result, Nepali Congress party won the first election, and Girija Prasad Koirala became the first Democratic PM.
  4. This could not end the Monarchy rule in Nepal. The real power exercised by only elected representatives, and the King of Nepal, remains the head of the state.
  5. King Birendra (11th King of Nepal), who accepted Democratic nation in 1990, was assassinated in 2001 with all his family members in his own palace.
  6. King Gyanendra became the new king of Nepal. He did not accepted the democratically elected government and declared the state of emergency, dissolved the Parliament, citing the direct power in his hand in February, 2005  
  7. Consequence of it was unification of all parties of Nepal including Maoist parties and formed Seven party Alliance (SPA) which led to Jan Andholan-II.
  8. The Eeople’s Movement-II led to the more violence rebel in the country as King was not ready to accept the democratic government. 
  9. Under the amid pressure, King reinstated the old Nepal House of Representatives on 24, April, 2006. 
  10. SPA chose GP Koirala as the PM of interim government and Parliament took away powers of King. And, the formation of written constitution started.

Note:- Constitutional Monarchy is a system in the governing power of the monarch is restricted and acts a non-party political head of the state under constitution, whether written or unwritten.


Facts of New Constitution of Nepal:

  1. New Government was elected in 2013. Sushil Koirala was elected as the new PM of Nepal.
  2. After the disastrous earthquake in April, the new draft chartered in June by all Parliament Representative.
  3. The new draft got consent of 85% of 601 representatives of the Houses. 
  4. President, Ram Baran Yadav promulgated the Nepal Constitution 2072 on 20, September, 2015.
  5. Nepal will have seven federal states whose name and boundaries will be decided by the commission formed.
  6. The new Constitution has 304 articles, 37 parts.
  7. Nepal will have Bicameralism– The Lower House or the House of Representatives will have 375 members and the Upper House has 60 members 
  8. Madhesis and the Tharu ethnic communities in southern Nepal and some western districts are opposed to the new Constitution as they believe it has failed to address concerns raised by the Madhesis and the Tharu ethnic communities.
  9. The Constitution specifically protects the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities. The state and the judiciary are prohibited from discriminating against sexual and gender minorities.
  10. The rhododendron is the national flower, and the cow is the national animal.
  11. Proselytizing (the act of converting one’s religion to another) declares illegal. And, Right to citizenship has also been added to give right to women against discrimination.

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